ALBUCA   RÉFÉRENCES / REFERENCES
GUIGAND Martine, Évaluation de matériaux calciques utilisés en endodontie: étude comparative in vitro Thèse, Université de Rennes I, 1998
MEINIG Georges E., D.D.S., F.A.C.D., Root Canal Cover-up Exposed! Many Illness Result,
Bion Publishing, 1993
FORH Pierre (Dr) , Mechanical reaming or chemical penetration : An endodontic choice,
Article, Scientifique, Le carnet du praticien, 4p.
ALB 001.pdf
(Version anglaise: ALB 015.pdf)


• For decades, endodonty followed the evolution of dentistry. It has become more and more scien-
tific in comparison with the empirism that prevailed in the previous generations. One would have
thought that this evolution would reduce the mechanization of the dental treatments. It did not. The
new techniques and materials are being inspired by a simplified catheterism, reliable, semi-automa-
tised but remaining eminently mechanical and tending to become more and more so.
MEINIG Georges E., D.D.S., Root canals pose health threat, Article/Interview
Internet : http://curezone.org/dental/root_canal.asp , page: 6, Article imprimé en 2002
ALB 002.pdf
Interview with George Meinig.
JUANEDA Robert (DCD, DSO), Infections périapicales sur dents porteuses d'obstacles
canalaires (bris d'instruments)
, Article, Revue d'odonto-stomatologie, Tome XII, No 5, pages:
337-342, 1983
ALB 003.pdf

• La fracture d'instruments canalaires, lors d'un traitement endodontique, compromet la guérison
de l'organe dentaire. Nous avons envisagé les différentes causes des fractures instrumentales et
passé en revue les différentes familles d'instruments susceptibles de se briser lors de nos manoeu-
vres thérapeutiques. Nous avons ensuite envisagé les situations diverses devant lesquelles nous
pouvons nous trouver.
COHET Marcel (Dr) (Faculté de chirurgie dentaire de Montpellier), La stratégie ocalexique en
pédodontie
, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 248, pages: 43-47, Mai 1984
ALB 004.pdf

• L'auteur indique quelles sont à son avis les indications de la méthode ocalexique en pédodontie
notamment en ce qui concerne les dents lactéales et les dents définitives immatures. Il décrit les
techniques opératoires qui doivent être utilisées selon les cas.
 

BERNARD Pierre D., avec la collaboration de MORIN Pierre, COLLAS Michel et HAMEL Henrz, Révision conceptuelle des traitements endodontiques, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, 4 p., Fév. 1976
ALB 005.pdf

• L'antiseptie est aléatoire quand on ne peut éliminer le milieu organique de culture microbienne. L'obturation canalaire artificielle est imparfaite et peut avoir une action pathogène. La regénération rapide de l'os périapical peut être suivie de celle d'un tissu pulpaire dentigène. La croissance dentinaire inachevée se poursuit alors jusqu'à son terme obturateur canalaire. Dans ce concept iatrologique nouveau, l'Odontologie conservatrice devien "regénératrice".

MUGNIER A., LABELLIE J., ROUILLON J., LE STRAT Mme (Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris), Contribution à la thérapeutique ocalexique, Point de vue après deux d'utilisation, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, pages: 25-31, Jan. 1970
ALB 006.pdf

• La méthode ocalexique mise au point par P. Bernard est maintenant bien connue. Après en avoir rappelé les principes et les bases expérimentales, les auteurs en précisent la technique à l'aide de cas cliniques; ils décrivent les incidents possibles, les cas d'échec et les indications.
FOHR, P. (Dr), Commentaries on the new hexocalexique therapy and endodontique infection, Article, 6 p.,
ALB 007.pdf
Version française: (ALB 086.pdf)

• Traduction du document "Commentaires sur la nouvelle thérapie hexocalexique de l'infection endodontique"
FOHR Pierre (Dr en Sciences odontologiques), L'obturation canalaire, Article, L'Information dentaire, No 42, pages: 25-32, Oct. 1973
ALB 008.pdf

• Différentes techniques mais aussi contextes différents
DUCROT André (Dr), La molaire de Madame M'…, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 269, pages: 33-34, Nov. 1984
ALB 009.pdf

• L'auteur présente un cas clinique ou la méthode ocalexique a permis une obturation totale de l'endodonte, sans intervention instrumentale intra-canalaire
FOHR Pierre (Dr en Sciences odontologiques), Thérapie unitaire endodontique, l'oxyde de calcium lourd, Document, Pratique odonto-stomatologique (Endodontie No 1606), 16 p., 1980
ALB 010.pdf

• Pierre D. Bernard en 1972 a découvert l'Hexocalex ou Oxyde de calcium lourd, principe de base du Biocalex 6-9 commercialisé pour le traitement spécifique des mortifications et de leurs complications. Depuis plus de 6 ans, nous nous sommes appliqués à tester, à modifier et à imposer cette thérapie en un traitement unique endodontique.
 
MARINGE-CHASTANG M. (Professeur), La thérapie ocalexique, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 229-230, pages: 57-60, Déc. 1983
ALB 011.pdf

• La méthode ocalexique est bien connue maintenant. Il ne nous apparaît toutefois pas inutile d'en préciser une fois de plus les principes, les indications et contre-indications, ainsi que la technique opératoire.
DUCROT André (Dr), Dent de lait ouverte et méthode ocalexique, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 115, pages: 45-48, Juin 1981
ALB 012.pdf

• L'auteur expose comment utiliser la méthode ocalexique dans le traitement caméral des dents temporaires: principes - technique opératoire - résultats.
 

BERNARD Pierre D. (Dr), MORIN Pierre, L'ectodonte ce "mal-traité", Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, 7 p., Juin 1974
ALB 013.pdf

• Le moignon ectodontique recouvert et enveloppé par une couronne, scellé habituellement par un ciment-colle, est souvent le siège d'infiltrations et d'infections torpides. Par contre, un oxyde de calcium de structure "loude" permet d'obtenir un scellement d'un type très particulier (expanso-compressif), qui pénètre les tubulis, recalcifie la dentine, colmate les failles et fissures, et détruit toute infiltration hydro-organo-septique.

Addenda terminologique, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, 2 p., Fév. 1976
ALB 014.pdf

• En libérant la spontanéité biologique des contraintes et des blocages iatro-médicamenteux, l'Ondontologie va pouvoir évoluer dans un cadre non plus seulement "conservateur", mais aussi "regénérateur" de la vitalité… Et c'est là vraiment un bel avenir.

FOHR Pierre (Dr), Alésage mécanique ou pénétration chimique : un choix endodontique, Article, Tonus, No 129, pages: 17-20, Juil. 1988
ALB 015.pdf

(Version anglaise: ALB 001.doc)
• L'Endodontie a suivi l'évolution de toute la dentisterie depuis des décennies. Elle est devenue de plus en plus scientifique, par comparaison à l'empirisme qui domina dans les générations qui nous ont précédés. On aurait pu penser que cette évolution réduirait la mécanisation de nos actes: on s'aperçoit qu'il n'en est rien. Les techniques ou matériaux récents s'inspirent d'un cathétérisme simplifié, fiable, semi-automatisé ou automatisé, mais restent éminemment mécaniques et ont tendance à l'être de plus en plus.
BERNARD Pierre D., De l'emploi des trigones pour l'obturation des canaux (notes de pratique courante), Article, L'Information dentaire, No 46, 1 p., Nov. 1977
ALB 016.pdf

• Quel est l'avantage des trigones sur les cônes classiques ? Quel est le rôle de leur plasticité ou de leur rigidité ?

FOHR Pierre (Dr), Réflexions sur une nouvelle conception thérapeutique : l'Oxyde de Calcium Lourd en Odontologie Conservatrice, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 82, pages: 49-52, Oct. 1980
ALB 017.pdf

• Analyse: L'auteur, en complément de son article paru dans le C.D.F. du 10 avril 1980, affirme de nouveau sa foi totale en la thérapie ocalexique.

COHEN-SCALI Joseph-Armand (Dr en Sciences odontologiques), Teneur en calcium des tubuli dentinaires après traitement endodontique par l'oxyde de calcium, Article, Revue d'Odonto-stomatologie, Tome VIII, No 2, pages: 111-114, 1979
ALB 018.pdf

• L'analyse à la seconde électronique de racines traitées par l'oxyde de calcium, lourd ou léger, permet de mettre en évidence un apport de calcium dans les tubuli dentinaires: il y a une variation considérable dans la teneur en calcium, entre les points d'analyse dans les tubuli et les points de dentine correspondants; cette variation atteint pour les dents traitées à l'Hexocalex, une différence de 60%, et de 20% pour les dents traitées au Biocalex. Cette valeur en calcium des tubuli des dents non traitées ou traitées à la pâte de Robin, est pratiquement la même que celle trouvée dans la dentine adjacente.

 
FOHR Pierre (DCD, DSO), Thérapie endodontique unitaire et atraumatique par l'oxyde de calcium lourd, Article, Le Chirurgien dentiste de France, No 61, pages: 53-55, Avr. 1980,
ALB 019.pdf

• Analyse. Des précisions sur la thérapeutique hexocalexique qui font suite à l'article paru dans le Chirurgien-Dentiste de France du 17 février 1977.
 
BERNARD Pierre D. (Dr), Clinique endodontique, Document/Article, Revue française d'Odonto-stomatologie, No 6, 14 p., Juil. 1958
ALB 020.pdf
 

DEBELIAN Gilberto J., OLSEN Inga, TRONSTAD Lelf (University of Oslo, Norway), Systemic diseases caused by oral microorganisms, Article, 57 (9 p.), 1994
ALB 021.pdf

GUIGAND Martine (DDS), PELLEN-MUSSI Pascal, LE GOFF Anne (DDS), VULCAIN Jean-Marie (DDS, PhD), BONNAURE-MALLET Martine (DDS, PhD) (University of Rennes, France), Evaluation of the cytocompatibility of three endodontic materials, Étude, 26 p.
ALB 022.pdf

• The goal of this in vitro study was to evaluate the relative cytocompatibility of three endodontic materials: calcium hydroxyde, a calcium oxide-based compound and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer. The evaluation was conducted 24, 72 and 168 hours following contact with the compounds and involved three complementary techniques : a colorimetric cytotoxicity test, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The results we obtained confirmed the initial cytotoxicity of the zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer and showed that the calcium oxide-based compound had the same relative cytocompatibility as calcium hydroxide.

Bio-Probe, Biocalex, Présentation du produit, Site Internet www.bioprobe.com, 1999
ALB 023.pdf
Journal of Endodontics, Étude in vitro de la diffusion calcique intra-dentinaire induite par deux biomatériaux endodontiques, Étude Journal of Endodontics, 12 p., 1996
ALB 024.pdf

• Le but de cette étude in vitro a été d'évaluer la pénétration calcique au sein de la dentine induite par deux biomatériaux canalaires, l'un à base d'oxyde de calcium, l'autre à base d'hydroxyde de calcium.
Bio-Probe, Saving teeth through root canal therapy, Article, Site Internet www.bioprobe.com, 7p., 1999
ALB 025.pdf
Inconnu, Rubigraphies ocalexiques, Radiographies et notes manuscrites, Collection de l'École dentaire de Paris, 3 p.
ALB 026.pdf

• Radiographies de dents avec Biocalex

 

DUQUET, Guy (Dr), Avantages de O Ca., Lettre adressée à Me Robert Brunet, Documents de Dr Guy Duquet, 2 p., 1997
ALB 027.pdf

• Résumé de la situation qui prévaut aujourd'hui en endodontie.
 
MERYON S.D., BROOK A.M. (University of Birmingham, U.K.), In vitro comparison of the cytotoxicity of 12 endodontic materials using a new technique, Étude, International Endodontic Journal, 7 p., 1990
ALB 028.pdf

• An in vitro method for the cytotoxicity testing of endodontic materials is described which aims to simulate the clinical situation. Materials can be tested in the presence or absence of a compacted layer of dentin chips mimicking the perispical dentin plug.
 

Inconnu, Révolution de l'endodontie conservatrice / Évolution radiographique de l'expansion ocalexique, Article, International Endodontic Journal, 2 p., 1990
ALB 029.pdf

GUIGAND Martine (DCD), VULCAIN Jean-Marie (DCD, PhD), DAUTEL-MORAZIN Anne (DCD, BONNAURE-MALLET Martine (DCD, PhD), Étude ultrastructurale des parois canalaires au contact de deux matériaux endodontiques, Étude, Journal of Endodontic, 5 p., 1997
ALB 030.pdf

(Version anglaise : ALB 035.pdf)
• Le but de cette étude in vitro a été de comparer au plan structural et ultrastructural les modifications de la matrice extracellulaire non minéralisée après l'utilisation de deux matériaux d'obturation canalaire, l'un à base d'hydroxyde de calcium et l'autre d'oxyde de calcium.

JUANEDA Robert, FERRIÈRES Gérard, TROTEBAS Jean-Pierre, Hydroxyde de calcium et gutta-percha, deux vieux matériaux pour une endodontie moderne, Article/Étude, Industries dentaires, no 14, pages: 52 à 56 , 1993
ALB 031.pdf

• Cette étude fait le point sur les progrès réalisés dans le traitement de la gangrène pulpaire et s'attache à souligner les vertus d'une technique française de désinfection endodontique : la méthode ocalexique.
PENDERGRASS Curt (from Affinity Labeling Technologies), Lettre adressée à M. Daniel Minard (Biocalex), Affinity Labeling Technology, 1998
ALB 032.pdf

• Details for participation in an upcoming Biocalex Study, and details of the Study itself.

NAVAZESH Mahvash (DMD), MULLIGAN Roseann (DDS, MS), Systemic dissemination as a result of oral infection in individuals 50 years of age and older, Article, Special care in dentistry, Vol. 15, no 1, pages: 12 à 19 (8 p.), 1995
ALB 033.pdf

• A litterature review (1980-1994) is provided here focusing on well-documented cases in which systemic disorders were vaused by oral foci of infections. This paper attempts to raise the level of awareness of practitioners in considering possible systemic complications caused by oral infection. It alos emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies in this field involving healthy and medically compromised elderly individuals.

International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (Orlando, Florida), Endodontics, A compendium of published research, Manuel, International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (Orlando, Florida), 38 p.
ALB 034.pdf

 
GUIGAND Martine (DCD), VULCAIN Jean-Marie (DCD, PhD), DAUTEL-MORAZIN Anne (DCD, BONNAURE-MALLET Martine (DCD, PhD), An ultrastructural study of root canal walls in contact with endodontic biomaterials, Étude, Journal of Endodontic, Vol. 23, No 5, 4 p., May 1997
ALB 035.pdf

(Version française : ALB 030.pdf)
• The aim of this in vitro study was to compare structural and ultrastructural changes to unmineralized extracellular matrix after using two root canal restorations materials, one calcium hydroxide baded and the other clacium oxide based.
 
CAVALLERI Giacomo, URBANI Giacomo, DE FAZIO Pietro, PETRECCA Sergio, In vivo comparison between calcium hydroxide and calcium oxyde in the root canal medication, Article/Étude, J lt Endo, Vol. IV, Nr. 3 , 3 p., 1990
ALB 036.pdf

• The authors show how the proper use of the root canal medication based on calcium oxyde is determinant for causing a perfect asepsis of the root canal in the 58 teeth, taking into consideration that calcium oxyde is more efficacious than the calcium hydroxide.
 

GUIGAND Martine (DCD), VULCAIN Jean-Marie (DCD, PhD), DAUTEL-MORAZIN Anne (DCD), BONNAURE-MALLET Martine (DCD, PhD), In vitro study of intradentinal calcium diffusion induced by two endodontic biomaterials, Étude, Journal of Endodontic, Vol. 23, No 6, 4 p., Juin 1997
ALB 037.pdf

• The aim of this in vitro study was to assess intratubular calcium penetration induced by two root canal restoration materials, one calcium oxyde based, and the other calcium hydroxide based.

COHEN-SCALI Joseph-Armand (Doctor of Odontological sciences), Calcium content of dentinal tubuli after endodontic treatment with calcium oxide, Article/Étude, Rev-Odontostomatol-Paris, Vol. 8(2), pages: 111-114, Mar-Avr 1979
ALB 038.pdf

• Electronic second analysis of roots treated with light or heavy calcium oxide makes it possible to detect a contribution to calcium to dentinal tubuli. There is a considerable variation in the calcium content between the analysis points in the tubuli and the corresponding points in the dentin. For teeth treated with Hexocalex this variation is as high as 60%, and 20% for teeth treated with Biocalex. Thsi calcium value for the tubuli of untreated teeth or teeth treated with Robin's paste is virtually the same as the value found in the adjacent dentin.

IMBEAU Jacques (DMD), GODFREY Michael E. (MB, BS), Clinical study: Pathological changes of peri-radicular tissues in endodontically treated teeth, Étude, B.O.P. Environmental Health Clinic, Tauranga, New Zealand, 8 p.
ALB 039.pdf

• A clinical and histological analysis of peri-radicular tissues found around endodontically treated teeth has demonstrated the presence of significant pathological changes such as bone necrosis, fibrosis and inflammation. These changes indicate that many apparently successfully endodontically treated teeth are not necessaery healthy and free of pathology.
PENDERGRASS Curt (from Affinity Labeling Technologies, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY), Revised and improved GCF-Toxicity report, Lettre adressée aux clients de Affinity Labeling Technologies, Affinity Labeling Technologies, Inc. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2 p., Jul. 1998
ALB 040.pdf

• Revised and improved GCF toxicity report: To date, we have analysed well over 1500 gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples and have made some observations which have allowed us to improve our GCF toxicity test. ALT's toxicity test now includes four markers of toxicity instead of one.

Affinity Labeling Technology, Oral toxicity articles. Selected studies published in Peer Reviewed Scientific, Dental and Medical Journals., Liste bibliographique, Affinity Labeling Technologies, Inc. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (http:/altcorp.com), 21 p., Sept. 1998
ALB 041.pdf

• Selected studies on toxicity caused oral microorganisms amalgame mercury published in peer reviewed scientific, dental and medical journals.

Affinity Labeling Technology, Instructions for Preparation and Shipping of Teeth and Cavitationnal Materials (Procedure), Document (procédure), Affinity Labeling Technologies, Inc. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (http:/altcorp.com), 3 p., Sept. 1998
ALB 042.pdf

• Instruction for preparation and shipping of teetch and cavitational material.

 
OSORIO DIAZ Yosette (Odontologist), FAJARDO MARINO Fernando (Medical Dr.), Usage of traumeel on root canal treatment, Étude, Biological management of endodontics, 9 p.
ALB 043.pdf

• Lately, interference fields with systemic repercussions resulting from dental treatments have been identified. One of the main producers of these interferences are root canal fillings, specially due to the type of material used as filling cement. With this study, we offer a management alternative where the antihomotoxic substance Traumeel is used as a replacement for conventional substances, thus opening new deepening lines in order to consolidate its usage.
 

DRUCKER DB, LILLEY JD, TUCKER D, GIBBS AC (University of Manchester, Great Britain), The endodontic microflora revisited, Étude, Microbios, 1 p., 1992
ALB 044.pdf

OSORIO RM, HEFTI A., VERTUCCI FJ, SHAWLEY AL (University of Carabobo, Venezuela), Citotoxicity of endodontic materials, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Feb. 1998
ALB 045.pdf

• An in vitro cell culture model of human gingival fibroblasts and L-929 cells was used to measure the citotoxicity of currently used root canals sealers Endomet, CRCS, and AH26 and root-end filling materials Amalgam, Gallium GF2, Ketac Silver, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and super-EBA.
DEBELIAN GJ, OLSEN I., TRANSTAD L. (University of Oslo, Norway), Bacteremia in conjunction with endodontic therapy, Étude, Endod Dent Traumatol, 1 p., Jun. 1995
ALB 046.pdf

• This study characterizes oral microorganisms believed to have spread from the root canal into the blood stream during and after endodontic therapy of teeth with Asymptomatic apical periodontitis.
DAHLE U.R., TRONSTRAD L., OLSEN I. (University of Oslo, Norway), Observation of an unusually large spirochete in endodontic infection, Étude, Oral Microbiol Immunol, 1 p., Aug. 1993
ALB 047.pdf

KEROSUO E., HAAPASALO M., LOUNATMAA K., RANTA H., RANTA K. (University of Kelsinki, Finland), Ultrastructure of a novel anaerobic gram-positive nonsporing rod from dental root canal, Étude, Scand J Dent Res, 1 p., Feb. 1988
ALB 048.pdf

• A novel anaerobic Gram-positive rod, strain ES4C, was isolated from a dental root canal infection.


HAAPASALO M. (University of Helsinki, Finland), Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections, Étude, FEMS Immunol Med Microbio, 1 p., Mar. 1993
ALB 049.pdf
 
GHARBIA S.E., HAAPASALO M., SHAH H.N., KOTIRANTA A., LOUNATMAA K., PEARCE M.A., DEVINE D.A. (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia), Characterization of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates from periodontic and endodontic infections., Étude, J Periodontol, 1 p., Jan. 1994
ALB 050.pdf

• The occurrence and surface properties of prevotella intermedia and P. nigrescens in healthy sites and in periodontic and endodontic infections were studied among 73 strains.
HAAPASALO M., Bacteroides buccae and related taxa in necrotic root canal infections, Étude, J Clin Microbiol, 1 p., Dec. 1986
ALB 051.pdf

• 57 adults with apical periodontitis were examined for the presence of nonpigmented bacteroids species in 62 infected root canals.
 

HAAPASALO M., Bacteroides spp. In dental root canal infections, Article/Étude, Endod Dent Traumatol, 1 p., Feb. 1989
ALB 052.pdf

• A summary of a series of bacteriological studies of endodontic infections is presented in this article.

ASIKAINEN S., ALALUUSUA S., Bacteriology of dental infections, Étude, Eur Heart J, 1 p., Dec. 1993
ALB 053.pdf


FUKUSHIMA H., YAMAMOTO K., HIROHATA K., SAGAWA H., LEUNG K.P., WALKER C.B. (University of Florida, Gainesville), Localisation and identification of root canal bacteria in clinically asymptomatic periapical pathosis, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Nov. 1990
ALB 054.pdf

• 21 teeth with clinically asymptomatic periapical pathosis (class 3) were extracted and the isolation, identification and localization of bacteria in the root apex were examined.

LIANG J.P. (College of Stomatology, Shangai, Anaerobes in infected canals: a preliminary study, Étude, Chung Hua Kou Chiang Tsa Chih, 1 p., Jan. 1991
ALB 055.pdf

• Anaerobes of 17 infected canals with periapical periodontitis were studied.

BAUMGARTNER J.C., FALKLER W.A. Jr. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC), Bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Aug. 1991
ALB 056.pdf

• 10 freshly extracted teeth which had carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions contiguous with the root apex were placed inside an anaerobic chamber and the apical 5 mm of the root canals cultured.


MOLVEN O., OLSEN I., KEREKES K. (University of Bergen, Norway), Scanning electron microscopy of bacteria in the apical part of root canals in permanent teeth with periapical lesions, Étude, Endod Dent Traumatol, 1 p., Oct. 1991
ALB 057.pdf

• The most 2 mm of the root canals of periapically diseased roots were examined for micro-organisms by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).


 
GOMES B.P., LILLEY J.D., DRUCKER D.B. (University Dental Hospital of Manchester, UK), Associations of endodontic symptoms and signs with particular combinations of specific bacteria, Étude, Int Endod J, 1 p., Mar. 1996
ALB 058.pdf

• Significant associations have been reported between (a) specific bacterial species isolated from root canals and (b) between individual bacterial species and endodontic symptoms and signs. The prime objective of this study was to determine whether particular combinations of specific bacteria are associated with individual endodontic symptoms and signs.
 
HORIBA N., MAEKAWA Y., ABE Y., ITO M., MATSUMOTO T., NAKAMURA H. (Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan), Correlations between endotoxin and clinical symptoms or radiolucent areas in infected root canals, Étude, Oral Surg oral med pathol, 1 p., Apr. 1991
ALB 059.pdf

• Samples were collected from the root canals of 30 teeth of patients with apical periodontitis and assayed for endotoxin content.
 

SUNDQVIST G. (University of Umea, Sweden), Associations between microbial species in dental root canal infections, Étude, Oral Microbiol Immunol, 1 p., Oct. 1992
ALB 060.pdf

• The existence of commensal or antagonistic relationships between microorganisms in the root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis was investigated. Samples were taken from 65 infected human root canals and were analysed according to species, frequency of occurence and proportion of the total isolated flora.

HASHIOKA K., YAMASAKI M., NAKANE A., HORIBA N., NAKAMURA H. (Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan), The relationship between clinical symptoms and anaerobic bacteria from infected root canals, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Nov. 1992
ALB 061.pdf

• The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the composition of bacterial flora from infected root canals and clinical symptoms.


GOMES B.P., LILLEY J.D., DRUCKER D.B. (University Dental Hospital of Manchester, UK), Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora, Étude, J Dent, 1 p., Jan. 1996
ALB 062.pdf

• Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial series.

HORIBA N., MAEKAWA Y., MATSUMOTO T., NAKAMURA H. (Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan), A study of the distribution of endotoxin in the dentinal wall of infected root canals, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Jul. 1990
ALB 063.pdf

• Samples of dentinal walls from the pulpal surface of the root canal to the cementum side were prepared by an abrasive microsampling method from teeth extracted from patients diagnosed as having apical periodontitis. Endotoxin was extracted with citric acid, and endotoxin content was quantified using a colorimetric method.

SUNDQVIST G. (University of Umea, Sweden), Taxonomy, ecology, and pathogenicity of the root canal flora, Article, Oral Surg oral med pathol, 1 p., Oct. 1994,
ALB 064.pdf
HIRAI K., TAGAMI A., OKUDA K. (Tokyo Dental College), Isolation and classification of anaerobic bacteria from pulp cavities of nonvital teeth in man, Étude, Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 1, 1 p., Aug. 1991
ALB 065.pdf

• The anaerobic microflora of infected pulp cavities and chronic periapical abscesses was studied. A total of 19 infected nonvital teeth were subjected to this study.


 

CHAUDHRY R., KALRA N., TALWAR V., THAKUR R. (University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi), Anaerobic flora in endodontic infections, Étude, Indian J Med Res, 1 p., Jun. 1997
ALB 066.pdf

• Microbiological and clinical data from 56 patients with endodontic infections were evaluated.

 
DRUCKER DB, GOMES BP, LILLEY JD (University of Manchester, U.K.), Role of anaerobic species in endodontic infection, Étude, Clin Infect Dis, 1 p., Sep. 1997
ALB 067.pdf
 

KEREKES K., OLSEN I., Similarities in the microfloras of root canals and deep periodontal pockets, Étude, 1 p., 1990
ALB 068.pdf

KIPIOTI A., NAKOU M., LEGAKIS N., MITSIS F., Microbiological findings of infected root canals and adjacent periodontal pockets in teeth with advancesperiodontitis, Étude, Oral Surg oral med pathol, 1 p., 1984
ALB 069.pdf

• The purpose of this study was to examine the flora from the root canals and periodontal pockets of teeth with advanced periodontical disease in order to compare the predominant cultivable microflora from the canals with those found in the adjacent periodontal pockets.



PREZ F., CALAS P., FALGUEROLLES A., MAURETTE A. (Faculté de chirurgie dentaire, Toulouse, France), Migration of a Streptococcus sanguis strain through the root dentinal tubules, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Jun. 1993
ALB 070.pdf

• The persistent presence of bacteria in the root canal system often leads to the failure of treatment. The aim of this study was to study the in vitro penetration of root dentinal tubules by bacteria.

LOOMER P.M., ELLEN R.P., TENENBAUM H.C., Characterization of inhibitory effects of suspected periodontopathogens on osteogenesis in vitro, Étude, Infect Immun, 1 p., Sep. 1995
ALB 071.pdf

• By using an in vitro bone-forming culture system, the chick periosteal osteogenesis (CPO) model, the direct effects on osteogenesis of sonicated extracts derived from oral bacteria were examined.


SUNDQVIST G., FIGDOR D., PERSSON S., SJOGREN U. (Umea University, Sweden), Microbiological analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment, Étude, Oral Surg oral med pathol, 1 p., Jan. 1998
ALB 072.pdf

• The purposes of this study were to determine what microbial flora were present in teeth after failed root canal therapy and to establish the outcome of conservative re-treatment.

UENO K., YOSHIHASHI M., SAWADA N., NAKAJIMA M., ARAKI K., SUDA H. (Tokyo Medical and Dental University), Cytotoxicity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected root canal, Étude, Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi, 1 p., Sep. 1993
ALB 073.pdf

• Bacteria in the infected root canal play an important role in the progression of the periapical lesion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of bacteria isolated from an infected root canal on the periapical lesion.


 
EHNEVID H., JANSSON L., LINDSKOG S., WEINTRAUB A., BLOMLOF L. (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden), Endodontic pathogens: propagation of infection through patent dentinal tubules in traumatized monkey teeth, Étude, Endod Dent Traumatol, 1 p., Oct. 1995
ALB 074.pdf

• The purpose of the present investigation was to study to what extent a predefined selection of endodontic pathogens inoculated in the root canal can influence periodontal pathology and healing in areas of the root covered by or devoid of cementum, using root resorption as a histomorphometric marker.
 
OGUNTEBI B.R. (University of Florida, Gainesville), Dentine tubule infection and endodontic therapy implications, Article, Int Endod J, 1 p., Jul. 1994
ALB 075.pdf


 

ANDO N., HOSHINO E. (Niigata University, Japan), Predominant obligate anaerobes invading the deep layers of root canal dentin, Étude, Int Endod J, 1 p., Jan. 1990
ALB 076.pdf

• This study was carried out to investigate the presence and types of bacteria invading the deep layers (0.5/2.0 mm from the surface of the root canal wall) of infected dentine of human root canals by sampling with an anaerobic glove box system the split surfaces of eight freshly extracted teeth.

GIULIANA G., AMMATUNA P., PIZZO G., CAPONE F., D'ANGELO M. (University of Palermo, Italy), Occurrence of invading bacteria in radicular dentin of periodontally diseased teeth : microbiological findings, Étude, J Clin Microbiol, 1 p., Jul. 1997
ALB 077.pdf

• The purpose of this investigation was to determine the occurrence and the species of invading bacteria in radicular dentin of periodontally diseased teeth.


KOBAYASHI T., HAYASHI A., YOSHIKAWA R., OKUDA K., HARA K. (Niigata University, Japan), The microbial flora from root canals and periodontal pockets of non-vital teeth associated with advanced periodontitis, Étude, Int Endod J, 1 p., Mar. 1999
ALB 078.pdf

• Microflora from root canals and periodontal pockets of periodontally affected teeth were compared in order to elucidate the as yet unknown relationship between pulpal and periodontal disease.

NAIR P.N., SJOGREN U., KREY G., KAHNBERG K.E., SUNDQVIST G. (University of Zurich, Switzerland), Intraradicular bacteria and fungi in root-filled, asymptomatic human teeth with therapy-resistant periapical lesions: a long-term light and electron microscopic follow-up study, Étude, J Endod, 1 p., Dec. 1990
ALB 079.pdf

• Light and electron microscopy were used to analyse 9 therapy-resistant and asymptomatic human periapical lesions, which were removed as block biopsies during surgical treatment of the affected teeth.

NAVAZESH M., MULLIGAN R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA), Systemic dissemination as a result of oral infection in individuals 50 years of age and older, Article, Spec Care Dentist, 1 p., Jan. 1995
ALB 080.pdf


Abstracts compiled by IMBEAU Jacques (DMD), Calcium hydroxyde and calcium oxide in endodontic therapy, Compilation of abstracts, Many sources, 5 p., 1990-1997
ALB 081.pdf

 
KORAL Stephen M. (DMD), Endodontics: Yes or No?, Article, IAOMT, 6 p., Mar. 2000
ALB 082.pdf

 

MESSINGS J.J. (BDS, FDS, RCS), STOCK C.J.R. (BDS, MSC), Biocalex, Article, Color Atlas of Endodontics, pages: 178-180, Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd., 1988
ALB 083.pdf

• A clinician variant on the use of calcium hydroxide, referred to as the "Biocalex" or calcium oxide expansion technique, is a method devised for treating infected and purulent pulps.

BERNARD, Pierre D. (Dr), Notes importantes concernant l'utilisation du Biocalex, Article, 1p.,
ALB 084.pdf
FOHR, P. (Dr en chirurgie dentaire et en sciences odontologiques), L'hydroxycalcithérapie endodontique (méthode personnelle), Article, Actualité Odonto-Stomatologiques no 154, pages: 335-346, 1986
ALB 085.pdf

• Convancu depuis des lustres, nous tenons par cette présentation à aider les confrères dans la recherche du "must" en la matière.
FOHR, P. (Dr en chirurgie dentaire et en sciences odontologiques), Commentaires sur la nouvelle thérapie hexocalexique de l'infection endodontique, Article, Le chirurgien-dentiste de France, 4p., Fév. 1997
ALB 086.pdf
(Version anglaise: ALB 007.pdf)
D'après les travaux du Dr. D. Bernard, Traitement de l'infection endodontique / Contraintes et libération de la thérapie endodontique / Nécrologie endodontique (de la momification à la fossilisation de l'implant naturel) / Ionophorèse et Hexocalex (synergie complémentaire), Articles, Le chirurgien-dentiste de France, 4 p., Juin 1978
ALB 087.pdf
BERNARD, Pierre D., COLLAS M., Du passé antiseptique à l'avenir ocalexique des traitements des canaux, Article, Revue du Cercle Odontologique Douaisien, No 4, 8 p., Avr. 1969
ALB 088.pdf

• Après le "plombage" simpliste de nos ancêtres, nous sommes amenés à contester aujourd'hui les thérapies endodontiques classiques qui emploient des antiseptiques dont l'action est incertaine, insolite et contradictoire. La mutation propose réside dans la thérapie ocalexique. Mais cette technique impose au praticien un effort de simplicité opératoire qui lui paraît paradoxal parce qu'il s'oppose aux usages et aux préjugés.

 
GUYON Étienne, HULIN Jean-Pierre, Mélange et désordre figé, Article, Pour la science, No 249, pages: 70-77, Juil. 1998
ALB 089.pdf

• Deux liquides se mélangent quand ils traversent un solide poreux. Inversement, les solides poreux peuvent aussi séparer des mélanges. La physique explore les raisons de ces différences.
GRANCHI Donatella (MD, PhD), STEA Susanna (BSc), CIAPETTI Gabriela (BSc), CAVEDAGNA Daniela, STEA Stefano (MD, DDS), PIZZOFERRATO Arturo (MD, PhD) (Laboratory for biocompatibility research on implant materials, Institut ortopedici Rizzoli), Endodontic cements induce alterations in the cell cycle of in vitro cultured osteoblasts, Article, Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, pages: 359-366, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., Mar. 1995
ALB 090.pdf

• The effects of endodontic cements on the cell cycle of MG63 osteoblasts cultured in vitro have been examined. Three groups of compounds were tested.

 

FOHR P. (Dr), DUDARD-FOHR Nicole (Dr) (Nice, France), L'oxyde de calcium lourd en endodontie : Thérapie endodontique unitaire (T.E.U.), Thèse (livre), 148 p., 1985
ALB 091.pdf

• L'antiseptie, la momification formolique des vestiges pulpaires de l'endodonte, les procédés mécaniques de pénétration et d'obturation sont très imparfaits. À l'opposé, l'ionophorèse et la méthode hexocalexique pénètrent impertubablement dans tout ce qui y est remplacée par un remplissage pétrifié d'hydroxyde de calcium.

Strategies for biocompatible endodontics, IAOMT (International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology), 11 p.
ALB 092.pdf

Radiographies de patients, Radiographies , 11 p., 2003
ALB 093.pdf
JUANEDA Robert (Dr en Chirurgie dentaire et en sciences odontologiques), Une conception de choix pour le traitement de la gangrène pulpaire: la méthode ocalexique, Article, 4 p.
ALB 094.pdf

BERNARD Pierre D. (Professeur à l'Écolde Dentaire de Paris) avec la collaboration de COLLAS M. et MORIN P., Thérapie ocalexique - Études endodontiques, Études, Librairie Maloine S.A., rue de l'École de Médecine, Paris, 142 p., 1967
ALB 095.pdf,
ALB 096.pdf,
ALB 097.pdf,
ALB 098.pdf
• Bases doctrinales, théoriques, mathématiques, expérimentales, physico-chimiques, biologiques, cliniques et techniques des interventions endodontiques par voie expansive.


BERNARD Pierre D., Finalité de l'obturation canalaire, Article, Le Chirurgien Dentiste de France, No 35, 8 p., Oct. 1979
ALB 099.pdf

• Exposition des impératifs de l'obturation canalaire et démonstration de comment les propriétés de l'oxyde de calcium lourd y apportent une réponse sans réserve.

 
JUANEDA Robert (Docteur en sciences odontologiques), Odontologie conservatrice et infection focale. Quand peut-on conserver l'organe dentaire?, Article, Le Chirurgien Dentiste de France, No 261, 7 p., Sep. 1984
ALB 100.pdf

• Face aux possibilités d'infection focale et à la demande fréquente par le médecin généraliste ou le spécialiste de "supression des foyers", le praticien odonto-stomatologiste se trouve souvent confronté à un véritable cas de conscience. L'auteur étudie les différentes pathogénies qui peuvent être en cause et montre que, dans tous les cas, un bilan bucco-dentaire complet, l'échange de vues avec le médecin traitant et l'information complète du patient, sont indispensables à la décision thérapeutique.
 
COHEN-SCALI Joseph-Armand (Docteur en Sciences ondontologiques), Pénétration ocalexique dans les canaux aberrants et les tubulis dentinaires., Étude, Revue d'odonto-stomatologie, Tome VI, No 2, 7 p., 1977
ALB 101.pdf

• La méthode ocalexique permet la pénétration de l'endodontie inaccessible. Une étude de la réalité de cette pénétration a été entreprise par différents moyens, en particulier auto-radiographie, marquage à la fluorescéine et examen au microscope électronique à balayage. Cette étude a montré que la pâte expansive se retrouvait dans les canalicules même si l'obturation totale en masse n'était pas constatée.

 

British Standard 1441:998, Medical devices - Risk analysis, Document, Comité européen de normalisation, 13 p.
ALB 102.pdf

HEILER Joseph (Dr), Risk Analysis (TÜV Product Service), Document, TÜV Product Service GMBH Medical Services, Extracorporeal Circulation - Functional Safety, 16 p., 1998
ALB 103.pdf

• This document is intended to give guidance to manufacturers who have to include the results of a risk analysis in their technical documentation for CE conformity assessment of a medical device.

Association française de normalisation (afnor), Norme française NF EN 292-1, Sécurité des machines - Notions fondamentales, principes généraux de conception, Document, 17 p., Association française de normalisation (afnor), Déc. 1991
ALB 104.pdf
KORAL Stephen M. (DMD), Biocalex clinical outcome study, Lettre et détails d'une étude à venir, Endodontics Committee of the IAOMT, 10 p., Apr. 2001
ALB 105.pdf

• Details of a research project: A prospective study of the long-term success rate of Biocalex root treatments.

MORIN, Pierre (Co-inventeur de "oxyde de calcium expansif"), Oxyde(s) de calcium et hydroxyde de calcium, la thérapie ocalexique un quart de siècle plus tard., Article, 5 p., Déc. 2000
ALB 106.pdf
HANSEN Richard T. (DMD, FACAD), HODGSON BROWN Ellen (JD), The Key to Ultimate Health - Chapter 10: Salvaging the root canal, Book, Internet, 7 p.
ALB 107.pdf

• Written as a guide for all health practioners and their patients to help them understand the vital role the mouth plays in the total health picture.

 

Albuca, Saving teeth through root canal therapy, Document, 2 p.
ALB 108.pdf
 
KORAL Stephen (DMD), Lettre adressée au Directeur du Journal dentaire du Québec, Lettre 2 p., Mai 2004
ALB 109.pdf
• L’article paru dans le Journal Mai-Juin 2004, Revue de littérature sur le Biocalex, par Silbert et Nguyen, était un mélange curieux. L’exposition de l’histoire et les arguments en faveur du Biocalex sont complets et bien présentés. Mais les arguments contre le Biocalex représentent l’ancienne liste des idées préconçues et conclusions insupportées par l’évidence....

 

KORAL Stephen (DMD), Letter addressed to Dr David Winn, Letter, 3 p., Jan. 2002
ALB 110.pdf

• Thanks for sending me that recent issue of your endodontists’ newsletter, the Endodontic Files, in which they discuss Biocalex. There are so many misunderstandings, misconceptions, preconceptions and cultural differences about it that it is difficult to know where to start a conversation.


SILBERT Richard (DDS,MScD), NGUYEN Nguyen-Anh (Université de Montréal), Revue de littérature sur le Biocalex, Article scientifique, Journal dentaire du Québec, Vol. 41, 7 p., Mai/Jun 2004
ALB 111.pdf

• Le Biocalex est un produit endodontique qui a connu un grand succès à la fin des années 70 en europe et au Québec et qui est redevenu fort populaire auprès d'une partie de la profession depuis son introduction aux Etats-Unis en 1995. Cette revue de littérature va s'efforcer de présenter les principes d'action sur lesquels se basent les auteurs préconisant l'utilisation du Biocalex ainsi que les réels tenants et aboutissants de la controverse entourant ce matériel.


MEINIG George E. (DDS, FACD), The 3 1/2 Year Success of Root Canal Cover-Up, The Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation - http://www.price-pottenger.org/Articles/Rootcanal.html, 6 p., 1999
ALB 112.pdf

• Dr. Meinig's Root Canal Cover-Up describes the extensive and meticulous root canal research of Dr. Weston A. Price, carried out over a period of 25 years. The following report describes Price's findings on root canals, and details Dr. Meinig's efforts to make them known to the public.

SHANKLAND Wesley (Dr), Root canal treatment : Is there a cover-up?, http://www.drshankland.com/rootcanal.html, 4 p.
ALB 113.pdf

• For the past 50 years, dentists have saved millions of teeth by performing endodontic therapy, or root canals. Dental students and residents in Endodontics have been taught to perform various procedures to save injured, dead, and dying teeth. These procedures were taught purely to help the public, with absolutely no other reason. ... However, today, there has been some revealing research which may require the dental profession to reconsider conventional ideas about endodontically treated teeth.


LEE Laura, MEINIG George (DDS), LAMARCHE M. (Dr.) , "Dangerous microbes - Cavitations & Root Canals (Part Two), http://www.mizar5.com/lauraleeshow2.htm, 22 p., 1995
ALB 114.pdf

• Laura Lee Interview with George Meinig, DDS & Dr. M. LaMarche

IAOMT (International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology), Status report on endodontic therapy, 1 p., Mar. 2001
ALB 115.pdf

• The International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT) encourages the dental profession to carefully consider the potential impact on systemic health of endodontic therapy.



 
American Association of Endodontists, FAQs About Root Canal Treatment, http://www. aae. org/ rootcanals.html, 3 p.
ALB 116.pdf

• Most patients report that having root canal (endodontic) treatment today is as unremarkable as having a cavity filled. If you've been told you need root canal (endodontic) treatment, you can find the answers to your questions below.
 
Root canal treatment / Endodontic therapy, http://www.animated-teeth.com / root_canal /t1_root_canal.htm, 15 p., Aug. 2003
ALB 117.pdf

• Our pages will describe for you the overall goals of root canal treatment, the treatment's individual steps, and also what other dental work might be necessary for a tooth which has had its root canal treatment completed. We also discuss the costs associated with root canal treatment, what role endodontists play in providing this type of therapy, and why root canal treatment can fail.

 

MERCOLA Joseph (Dr.), Root Canal Alternatives, http://www.mercola.com/ article/dental /rootcanal/ alternative.htm, 1 p.
ALB 118.pdf

• f you are not seeing a biological dentist already, try to find someone who understands this process. Many biological dentists have alternatives, such as infra-red lasers, that can save the tooth in about 25% of the cases. If the tooth is dead and there is no way to revive it, then it would be best to have a root canal with Biocalex.

KING Ron (DDS), Root Canals Treatment is UNSAFE Viewpoint, http://www.sukel.com/ root%20canal%20treatment%20unsafe.htm, 1 p.
ALB 119.pdf

• Based on a 25 year extensive study by respected researcher, Dr. Westin Price, scientific data suggests that root canal therapy is the cause of many systemic diseases and illnesses. Although root canal therapy is usually successful in eliminating pain and swelling associated with dead teeth, and in allowing those dead teeth to remain in the mouth to function, the side effects may be hazardous to overall health. It is estimated that only about 30% of the population has a healthy enough immune system to ward off the side effects.

Dental Review, Root Canal Treatment explained by Dental Review, http://www.dentalreview.com/ root_canal.htm, 2 p., 1998
ALB 120.pdf

• Root Canal Treatment explained by Dental Review


Root Canals & Cavitations (from pulled teeth), http://www.holisticmed.com/ dental/ root.html, 2 p.
ALB 121.pdf

• Health problems contributed to significantly by toxic bacteria from root canals and cavitations may be an even more hazardous and widespread problem than mercury toxicity from amalgam fillings.

University of Birmingham, Removal of Foreign Objects from Root Canals, http://www.dentistry.bham.ac.uk/ cal/ removal/ open.htm, 6 p.
ALB 122.pdf

• One of the most difficult clinical tasks a practitioner may have to undertake is the removal of fractured instruments or other foreign bodies which have become tightly wedged within the root canal. The procedure for removal will vary depending on the nature of the foreign body. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step guide to the necessary techniques.


CHEN William H. (DMD, MAGD, FACD, FICD), Laser Endodontics : YSGG Laser root canal therapy, http://www.biolase.com/clinicalarticles/Chen_DT_reprint.pdf, 3 p., Dentistry Today
ALB 123.pdf

• Dentistry has now been introduced to a new root canal treatment using the Er,Cr:YSGG (erbium, chromium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet) laser to provide additional important benefits to our patients….


 
ANALOUI Mostafa (Ph.D.), "Three-Dimensional Imaging and Analysis of a Root Canal (Tech ID 9941), http://arti.indiana.edu/ott/technol/techs/9941.html, 1 p., ARTI Indiana University
ALB 124.pdf

• X-ray images of an infected tooth are usually obtained prior to the procedure, and the length of the root canal is estimated by measuring the length of the root canal image formed on the X-ray film. However, this approach portrays only a two-dimensional image; a three-dimensional image is required in order to accurately determine the shape and length of the root canal. This system generates a three-dimensional mathematical model of the root canal and calculates the length of the root canal based on the model.
NARA Robert O. (Dr.), Do I Really Need A Root Canal ?, http://mizar5.com/root.htm, 3 p.
ALB 125.pdf

• A devital (de-vitalize, 'dead' ) nerve usually leads eventually to infection with its resulting pain and swelling. We must be very careful to point out here, however, that just because pain and swelling occur does not necessarily mean a root canal is required. Literally millions of root canals have been done when in reality there was no need for this procedure. This is because the dental profession frequently misconstrues gum tissue abscesses as being nerve abscesses. Gum tissue infection can be healed and the problem might be resolved without having a root canal.

itles and abstracts of various articles on the subject, 6 p.
ALB 126.pdf